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Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2016;23(2):115-24. doi: 10.1080/23279095.2015.1012762. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Executive Functioning of Combat Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

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a Nuclear Medicine , Veterans Affairs of Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System , Los Angeles , California.
b School of Psychology , Fielding Graduate University , Santa Barbara , California.


This study investigates neuropsychological deficits in recently deployed veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Veterans discharged from 2007 to 2012 were recruited from Veterans Affairs clinics. Independent groups of participants with mTBI (n = 57) and those without TBI (n = 57) were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II, Combat Exposure Scale, Word Memory Test, and the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview. Neuropsychological instruments included the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, Letter and Category Fluency, Trail-Making Test-Parts A and B, Christiansen H-abbreviated, Soper Neuropsychology Screen, Wechsler Memory Scale subtests Logical Memory I and II, and the Street Completion Test. The mTBI group performed significantly worse on all of the executive and nonexecutive measurements with the exception of Category Fluency, after controlling for age, depression effort, and combat exposure. Depression and combat exposure were greater for the mTBI group. The mTBI group scored poorer on effort, but only the Multiple Choice subtest was significant. The mTBI group had good awareness of their deficits.


executive; mild TBI; military; neuropsychology; psychology; traumatic brain injury

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