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PLoS Genet. 2015 Oct 23;11(10):e1005609. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005609. eCollection 2015 Oct.

Virus Satellites Drive Viral Evolution and Ecology.

Author information

1
Universidad Cardenal Herrera CEU, Moncada, Spain.
2
Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
3
Instituto de Biomedicina de Valencia (CSIC), Valencia, Spain.
4
Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas (CSIC-UPV), Valencia, Spain; Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America.
5
Department of Biosciences, Center for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, United Kingdom.
6
Skirball Institute Program in Molecular Pathogenesis and Departments of Microbiology and Medicine, New York University Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Abstract

Virus satellites are widespread subcellular entities, present both in eukaryotic and in prokaryotic cells. Their modus vivendi involves parasitism of the life cycle of their inducing helper viruses, which assures their transmission to a new host. However, the evolutionary and ecological implications of satellites on helper viruses remain unclear. Here, using staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) as a model of virus satellites, we experimentally show that helper viruses rapidly evolve resistance to their virus satellites, preventing SaPI proliferation, and SaPIs in turn can readily evolve to overcome phage resistance. Genomic analyses of both these experimentally evolved strains as well as naturally occurring bacteriophages suggest that the SaPIs drive the coexistence of multiple alleles of the phage-coded SaPI inducing genes, as well as sometimes selecting for the absence of the SaPI depressing genes. We report similar (accidental) evolution of resistance to SaPIs in laboratory phages used for Staphylococcus aureus typing and also obtain the same qualitative results in both experimental evolution and phylogenetic studies of Enterococcus faecalis phages and their satellites viruses. In summary, our results suggest that helper and satellite viruses undergo rapid coevolution, which is likely to play a key role in the evolution and ecology of the viruses as well as their prokaryotic hosts.

PMID:
26495848
PMCID:
PMC4619825
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1005609
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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