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Jundishapur J Microbiol. 2015 Sep 8;8(9):e28057. doi: 10.5812/jjm.28057. eCollection 2015 Sep.

In Vitro Susceptibilities of Candida albicans Isolates to Antifungal Agents in Tokat, Turkey.

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Department of Microbiology and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tokat, Turkey.



Candida albicans is the pathogenic species most commonly isolated from fungal infections. Management of these infections depends on the immune status of the host, severity of disease, and the choice of antifungal drug. In spite of the development of new antifungal drugs, epidemiological studies have shown that resistance to antifungal drugs in C. albicans strains is becoming a serious problem.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro susceptibility of C. albicans isolates to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and anidulafungin.


A total of 201 C. albicans isolates were collected from clinical specimens. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed using the Etest.


All the tested C. albicans isolates were found to be susceptible to amphotericin B and anidulafungin. Although none of the isolates showed resistance to caspofungin, 15% of the isolates were classified as showing intermediate resistance. The resistance rates of C. albicans isolates to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole were 32%, 34%, 21%, 14% and 14%, respectively.


Our findings indicate that resistance of C. albicans strains to azoles is more common in Tokat, Turkey. Therefore, a strategy to control the inappropriate and widespread use of antifungal drugs is urgently needed. Fungal culturing and antifungal susceptibility testing will be useful in patient management as well as resistance surveillance.


Amphotericin B; Antifungal Drug Resistance; Azoles; Candida albicans; Echinocandins

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