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Brain Pathol. 2016 Mar;26(2):139-54. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12333. Epub 2015 Dec 8.

Understanding Aspects of Aluminum Exposure in Alzheimer's Disease Development.

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Department of Biochemistry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.
Radiation Oncology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.
Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, Telangana, India.
Genetics and Molecular Biology Program, Emory University Laney Graduate School, Atlanta, GA.


Aluminum is a ubiquitously abundant nonessential element. Aluminum has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and dialysis encephalopathy. Many continue to regard aluminum as controversial although increasing evidence supports the implications of aluminum in the pathogenesis of AD. Aluminum causes the accumulation of tau protein and Aβ protein in the brain of experimental animals. Aluminum induces neuronal apoptosis in vivo and in vitro, either by endoplasmic stress from the unfolded protein response, by mitochondrial dysfunction, or a combination of them. Some, people who are exposed chronically to aluminum, either from through water and/or food, have not shown any AD pathology, apparently because their gastrointestinal barrier is more effective. This article is written keeping in mind mechanisms of action of aluminum neurotoxicity with respect to AD.


Alzheimer's disease; aluminum; amyloid-β protein; neurofibrillary tangles

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