Send to

Choose Destination
Dent Mater. 2015 Dec;31(12):1510-22. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Cytotoxicity and osteogenic potential of silicate calcium cements as potential protective materials for pulpal revascularization.

Author information

Discipline of Endodontics, Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil.
State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.
College of Dental Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA.
Department of Prosthodontics, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shannxi, China.
Department of Cariology and Endodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, Beijing, China.
College of Dental Medicine, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA, USA. Electronic address:



In pulpal revascularization, a protective material is placed coronal to the blood clot to prevent recontamination and to facilitate osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to produce new dental tissues. Although mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been the material of choice for clot protection, it is easily displaced into the clot during condensation. The present study evaluated the effects of recently introduced calcium silicate cements (Biodentine and TheraCal LC) on the viability and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) by comparing with MTA Angelus.


Cell viability was assessed using XTT assay and flow cytometry. The osteogenic potential of hDPSCs exposed to calcium silicate cements was examined using qRT-PCR for osteogenic gene expressions, alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity, Alizarin red S staining and transmission electron microscopy of extracellular calcium deposits. Parametric statistical methods were employed for analyses of significant difference among groups, with α=0.05.


The cytotoxic effects of Biodentine and TheraCal LC on hDPSCs were time- and concentration-dependent. Osteogenic differentiation of hDPSCs was enhanced after exposure to Biodentine that was depleted of its cytotoxic components. This effect was less readily observed in hDPSCs exposed to TheraCal LC, although both cements supported extracellular mineralization better than the positive control (zinc oxide-eugenol-based cement).


A favorable tissue response is anticipated to occur with the use of Biodentine as a blood clot-protecting material for pulpal revascularization. Further investigations with the use of in vivo animal models are required to validate the potential adverse biological effects of TheraCal LC on hDPSCs.


Biocompatibility; Calcium silicate cements; Cytotoxicity; Mineral trioxide aggregate; Revascularization

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center