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Pediatr Nephrol. 2016 Jul;31(7):1055-60. doi: 10.1007/s00467-015-3228-x. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Epigenetics mechanisms in renal development.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-37, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA. salappa@tulane.edu.
2
Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-37, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA. seldahr@tulane.edu.

Abstract

Appreciation for the role of epigenetic modifications in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases is fast gaining attention. Treatment of chronic kidney disease stemming from diabetes or hypertension as well as Wilms tumor will all profit from knowledge of the changes in the epigenomic landscapes. To do so, it is essential to characterize the epigenomic modifiers and their modifications under normal physiological conditions. The transcription factor Pax2 was identified as a major epigenetic player in the early specification of the kidney. Notably, the progenitors of all nephrons that reside in the cap mesenchyme display a unique bivalent histone signature (expressing repressive epigenetic marks alongside activation marks) on lineage-specific genes. These cells are deemed poised for differentiation and commitment to the nephrogenic lineage. In response to the appropriate inducing signal, these genes lose their repressive histone marks, which allow for their expression in nascent nephron precursors. Such knowledge of the epigenetic landscape and the resultant cell fate or behavior in the developing kidney will greatly improve the overall success in designing regenerative strategies and tissue reprogramming methodologies from pluripotent cells.

KEYWORDS:

Epigenetics; Histone code; Kidney development; Nephrogenesis; Nephron progenitors

PMID:
26493068
PMCID:
PMC4841758
DOI:
10.1007/s00467-015-3228-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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