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Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015 Oct 20;5:28758. doi: 10.3402/iee.v5.28758. eCollection 2015.

Hygiene quality and presence of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in raw food diets for dogs.

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Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden;



Raw food diets are popular among some dog owners, even though there are concerns regarding the infectious disease risk and public health implications. Hence, the two aims of this study were to investigate the hygiene quality of raw food diets for dogs in the Swedish market and if Escherichia coli with transferable resistance to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC) was present in such products.


Samples of raw food diets were suspended and further diluted in 0.9% saline. Appropriate dilutions were 1) cultured on Petrifilmâ„¢SEC to quantify the amount of E. coli in the samples and 2) mixed with cefotaxime to a final concentration of 1 mg/L and cultured on Petrifilmâ„¢SEC to quantify the amount of ESC-resistant E. coli in the samples. Furthermore, undiluted suspensions were mixed 1:1 with double strength MacConkey broth with cefotaxime, enriched overnight and finally cultured on MacConkey agar with cefotaxime (1 mg/L). Suspected ESC-resistant E. coli were screened by PCR for genes encoding extended spectrum beta lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC and their susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobials was performed by broth microdilution using VetMIC GN-mo.


Escherichia coli was isolated from all samples (n=39) and ESC-resistant E. coli was isolated from nine samples (23%). All ESC-resistant E. coli were PCR-positive for the bla CMY-2 group and only one of them was also resistant to a non-beta-lactam antibiotic.


The results of this study indicate that raw food diets could be a source of ESC-resistant E. coli to dogs and highlight the need for maintaining good hygiene when handling these products to prevent infection.


AmpC; BARF; E. coli; ESBL; raw food diet

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