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Gynecol Endocrinol. 2016;32(4):259-63. doi: 10.3109/09513590.2015.1111329. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Vitamin D and benign gynaecological diseases: a critical analysis of the current evidence.

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a Department of Clinical Science and Community Health , Istituto Ostetrico e Ginecologico 'Luigi Mangiagalli', Università degli Studi , Milano , Italy.


Vitamin D is a fat-soluble pro-hormone that plays an important role in bone homeostasis; beside this principal function, vitamin D promotes modulation of cell growth, neuromuscular and immune function, and reduction of inflammation. In addition, several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency could increase the risk of cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, vitamin D plays also an important role in female reproduction, because vitamin D receptors are expressed in ovarian tissue, endometrium, fallopian epithelial cells as well as in decidua and placenta. We aimed to review the most updated evidence, which suggests a link between vitamin D metabolism and the development of some gynaecological diseases, such as endometriosis, uterine fibroids and polycystic ovary syndrome.


Endometriosis; overdiagnosis; polycystic ovary syndrome; uterine fibroids; vitamin D

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