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Oncotarget. 2015 Nov 24;6(37):39676-91. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.5344.

Tumor necrosis is an important hallmark of aggressive endometrial cancer and associates with hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation responses.

Author information

1
Centre for Cancer Biomarkers CCBIO, Department of Clinical Medicine, Section for Pathology, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
2
Department of Pathology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
3
CCBIO, Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4
Department of Microbiology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.
5
Center for Cancer Biomarkers CCBIO, Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Norway.
6
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Abstract

AIMS:

Tumor necrosis is associated with aggressive features of endometrial cancer and poor prognosis. Here, we investigated gene expression patterns and potential treatment targets related to presence of tumor necrosis in primary endometrial cancer lesions.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

By DNA microarray analysis, expression of genes related to tumor necrosis reflected multiple tumor-microenvironment interactions like tissue hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation pathways. A tumor necrosis signature of 38 genes and a related patient cluster (Cluster I, 67% of the cases) were associated with features of aggressive tumors such as type II cancers, estrogen receptor negative tumors and vascular invasion. Further, the tumor necrosis signature was increased in tumor cells grown in hypoxic conditions in vitro. Multiple genes with increased expression are known to be activated by HIF1A and NF-kB.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our findings indicate that the presence of tumor necrosis within primary tumors is associated with hypoxia, angiogenesis and inflammation responses. HIF1A, NF-kB and PI3K/mTOR might be potential treatment targets in aggressive endometrial cancers with presence of tumor necrosis.

KEYWORDS:

angiogenesis; gene signatures; hypoxia; inflammation; necrosis

PMID:
26485755
PMCID:
PMC4741854
DOI:
10.18632/oncotarget.5344
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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