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Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig. 2016 Apr 1;26(1):13-24. doi: 10.1515/hmbci-2015-0041.

Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in healthy and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle.


Skeletal muscle is the largest tissues in the human body and is considered the primary target for insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In skeletal muscle, binding of the insulin to insulin receptor (IR) initiates a signaling cascade that results in the translocation of the insulin-sensitive glucose transporter protein 4 (GLUT4) to the plasma membrane which leads to facilitated diffusion of glucose into the cell. Understanding the precise signaling events guiding insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is pivotal, because impairment in these signaling events leads to development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes current understanding of insulin signaling pathways mediating glucose uptake in healthy and insulin-resistant skeletal muscle.

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