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Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2016 Feb;36:59-65. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Activity-dependent signaling: influence on plasticity in circuits controlling fear-related behavior.

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Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States.
Lieber Institute for Brain Development, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States; Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States. Electronic address:


Fear regulation is impaired in anxiety and trauma-related disorders. Patients experience heightened fear expression and reduced ability to extinguish fear memories. Because fear regulation is abnormal in these disorders and extinction recapitulates current treatment strategies, understanding the underlying mechanisms is vital for developing new treatments. This is critical because although extinction-based exposure therapy is a mainstay of treatment, relapse is common. We examine recent findings describing changes in network activity and functional connectivity within limbic circuits during fear regulation, and explore how activity-dependent signaling contributes to the neural activity patterns that control fear and anxiety. We review the role of the prototypical activity-dependent molecule, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), whose signaling has been critically linked to regulation of fear behavior.

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