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Semin Thromb Hemost. 2015 Nov;41(8):880-93. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1564798. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Imaging evaluation of hemophilia: musculoskeletal approach.

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Department of Radiology, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Department of Medical Imaging, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.


Imaging assessment is an important tool to evaluate clinical joint outcomes of hemophilia. Arthropathic changes have traditionally been evaluated by plain radiography and more recently by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Early arthropathic changes can be identified by modern imaging techniques such as T2 mapping MRI of cartilage even before clinical symptoms become apparent. Cross-sectional imaging modalities such as CT, ultrasonography, and MRI are useful in assessing bleeding-related musculoskeletal complications such as pseudotumors that still exist in some parts of the world. This article provides an overview of imaging of hemophilic arthropathy, and discusses the role and scope of individual imaging modalities currently in use in clinical practice, as well as of promising techniques that require further investigation in the immediate future.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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