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Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2015 Dec;17(12):96. doi: 10.1007/s11920-015-0634-5.

Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

Author information

1
Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5T1R8, Canada.
2
Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
3
Undergraduate Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
4
Translational Addiction Research Laboratory, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON, Canada.
5
School of Kinesiology and Health Science, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.
6
Pharmacogenetics Research Clinic, Campbell Family Mental Health Research Institute, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, ON, M5T1R8, Canada. Daniel.Mueller@camh.ca.
7
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Daniel.Mueller@camh.ca.

Abstract

There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

KEYWORDS:

Binge eating; Dopamine; Food addiction; Genetics; Reward system

PMID:
26478196
DOI:
10.1007/s11920-015-0634-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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