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Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2015;135:175-201. doi: 10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.06.016. Epub 2015 Jul 31.

Exercise and the Regulation of Adipose Tissue Metabolism.

Author information

1
Biology of Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia.
2
Biology of Lipid Metabolism Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia. Electronic address: matthew.watt@monash.edu.

Abstract

Adipose tissue is a major regulator of metabolism in health and disease. The prominent roles of adipose tissue are to sequester fatty acids in times of energy excess and to release fatty acids via the process of lipolysis during times of high-energy demand, such as exercise. The fatty acids released during lipolysis are utilized by skeletal muscle to produce adenosine triphosphate to prevent fatigue during prolonged exercise. Lipolysis is controlled by a complex interplay between neuro-humoral regulators, intracellular signaling networks, phosphorylation events involving protein kinase A, translocation of proteins within the cell, and protein-protein interactions. Herein, we describe in detail the cellular and molecular regulation of lipolysis and how these processes are altered by acute exercise. We also explore the processes that underpin adipocyte adaptation to endurance exercise training, with particular focus on epigenetic modifications, control by microRNAs and mitochondrial adaptations. Finally, we examine recent literature describing how exercise might influence the conversion of traditional white adipose tissue to high energy-consuming "brown-like" adipocytes and the implications that this has on whole-body energy balance.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocyte; Adipose triglyceride lipase; Brown adipose tissue; Catecholamines; DNA methylation; Exercise training; Lipolysis; Metabolism; Perilipin 1; microRNA

PMID:
26477915
DOI:
10.1016/bs.pmbts.2015.06.016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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