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Adv Immunol. 2015;128:123-82. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Long-Range Regulation of V(D)J Recombination.

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Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.
Institut Curie, CNRS UMR3215, INSERM U934, Paris, France.
Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA. Electronic address:


Given their essential role in adaptive immunity, antigen receptor loci have been the focus of analysis for many years and are among a handful of the most well-studied genes in the genome. Their investigation led initially to a detailed knowledge of linear structure and characterization of regulatory elements that confer control of their rearrangement and expression. However, advances in DNA FISH and imaging combined with new molecular approaches that interrogate chromosome conformation have led to a growing appreciation that linear structure is only one aspect of gene regulation and in more recent years, the focus has switched to analyzing the impact of locus conformation and nuclear organization on control of recombination. Despite decades of work and intense effort from numerous labs, we are still left with an incomplete picture of how the assembly of antigen receptor loci is regulated. This chapter summarizes our advances to date and points to areas that need further investigation.


ATM; Allelic exclusion; CTCF; Homologous pairing; Nuclear organization; Pericentromeric heterochromatin; RAG; V(D)J recombination

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