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Eur J Nutr. 2016 Apr;55(3):1245-53. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-0937-7. Epub 2015 Oct 18.

Vinegar decreases blood pressure by down-regulating AT1R expression via the AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARγ pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang Province, China.
2
Department of Surgery, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.
3
Department of Pediatrics, 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.
4
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang Province, China. liying_helen@163.com.
5
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, 157 Baojian Road, Harbin, 150081, Heilongjiang Province, China. changhaosun2002@163.com.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Vinegar has been reported to lower blood pressure, but its mechanism is unclear. This study explored whether vinegar plays antihypertensive effect by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway.

METHODS:

Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were assigned to vinegar, acetic acid, nifedipine, nifedipine + vinegar, or distilled water by oral gavage for 8 weeks. Blood and aortas were analyzed for biochemical indices and protein expression levels. Sv40-transformed aortic rat endothelia cell line (SVAREC) cells were treated with acetate at different doses for 24 h; protein expression levels were assessed.

RESULTS:

Vinegar and acetic acid decreased blood pressure in SHRs on weeks 6 and 8, and nifedipine + vinegar had a better effect on blood pressure control than vinegar or nifedipine alone. Vinegar and acetic acid could decrease serum renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activities, angiotensin II and aldosterone concentrations in SHRs. Vinegar and acetic acid also increased AMP/ATP ratios and expression levels of pAMPK, PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PPARγ while inhibited angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression in SHRs. The changes in these protein expressions were also found in SVAREC cells treated with 200 or 400 μmol/L acetate. In the presence of AMPK inhibitor or PGC-1α small interfering RNA, the effects of acetate on their downstream protein expression in SVAREC cells were abolished, respectively.

CONCLUSION:

Vinegar activates AMPK by increasing AMP/ATP ratios, thereby increases PGC-1α and PPARγ expressions, and inhibits AT1R expression in SHRs. Acetic acid is responsible for the antihypertensive effects of vinegar. There is a joint effect between vinegar and nifedipine in blood pressure control.

KEYWORDS:

AMPK; Angiotensin II type 1 receptor; Blood pressure; Vinegar

PMID:
26476634
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-015-0937-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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