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Biochem Pharmacol. 2016 Jan 15;100:1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2015.10.003. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States.
2
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, United States; Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States; Department of Immunology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States; Department of Environmental & Occupational Health Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States; Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, United States. Electronic address: dayb@njhealth.org.

Abstract

The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

KEYWORDS:

DNA damage; Oxidative stress; Reactive nitrogen species; Reactive oxygen species; Therapeutics

PMID:
26476351
PMCID:
PMC4744107
DOI:
10.1016/j.bcp.2015.10.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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