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J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Jan;17(1):57-65. doi: 10.3171/2015.6.PEDS15166. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

Malignant brainstem tumors in children, excluding diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

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Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Le Bonheur Children's Hospital;
Departments of 2 Surgery.
Semmes-Murphey Neurologic & Spine Institute;
Departments of 4 Neurosurgery.
University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.
Oncology, and.
Pediatrics, and.
Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital;
Radiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center; and.


OBJECT Malignant tumors of the brainstem, excluding classic diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs), are a very rare, heterogeneous group of neoplasms that have been infrequently described in the literature. In this paper, the authors present their experiences with treating these unique cancers. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify eligible cases over a 15-year period. All tumors involving the pons were, by consensus, felt not to be DIPGs based on their neuroimaging features. Demographic information, pathological specimens, neuroimaging characteristics, surgical and nonsurgical management plans, and survival data were gathered for analysis. RESULTS Between January 2000 and December 2014, 29 patients were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 8.4 years (range 2 months to 25 years), and 17 (59%) patients were male. The most common presenting signs and symptoms were cranial neuropathies (n = 24; 83%), hemiparesis (n = 12; 41%), and ataxia or gait disturbance (n = 10; 34%). There were 18 glial and 11 embryonal tumors. Of the glial tumors, 5 were radiation-induced and 1 was a malignant transformation of a previously known low-grade tumor. Surgical intervention consisted of biopsy alone in 12 patients and some degree of resection in another 15 patients. Two tumors were diagnosed postmortem. The median overall survival for all patients was 196 days (range 15 to 3999 days). There are currently 5 (17%) patients who are still alive: 1 with an anaplastic astrocytoma and the remaining with embryonal tumors. CONCLUSIONS In general, malignant non-DIPG tumors of the brainstem carry a poor prognosis. However, maximal cytoreductive surgery may be an option for select patients with focal tumors. Long-term survival is possible in patients with nonmetastatic embryonal tumors after multimodal treatment, most importantly maximal resection.


AA = anaplastic astrocytoma; ADC = apparent diffusion coefficient; ATRT = atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor; DIPG = diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma; DWI = diffusion-weighted imaging; ETANTR = embryonal tumor with abundant neuropil and true rosettes; GBM = glioblastoma multiforme; GTR = gross-total resection; HGG = high-grade glioma; NTR = near-total resection; OS = overall survival; PNET = primitive neuroectodermal tumor; STR = subtotal resection; brainstem tumor; embryonal; glioma; malignant; oncology; outcomes; resection

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