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Sci Total Environ. 2016 Jan 15;541:1151-1160. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.142. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

FTIR analysis and evaluation of carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM1.0.

Author information

1
Programa de Pós-graduação em Sensoriamento Remoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
2
Programa de Pós-graduação em Sensoriamento Remoto, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; Fundação Estadual de Proteção Ambiental Henrique Luís Roessler, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Electronic address: gerpro.pesquisa@fepam.rs.gov.br.
3
Laboratory of Environmental Researches and Nanotechnology Development, Centro Universitário La Salle, Mestrado em Avaliação de Impactos Ambientais em Mineração, Canoas, RS, Brazil.
4
Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Abstract

Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) represent a group of organic compounds of significant interest due to their presence in airborne particulates of urban centers, wide distribution in the environment, and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. These compounds, associated with atmospheric particles of size < 1 μm, have been reported as a major risk to human health. This study aims at identifying the spectral features of NPAHs (1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 6-nitrochrysene) in emissivity and transmittance spectra of samples of particulate matter < 1 μm (PM1.0) using infrared spectrometry. Carcinogenic and mutagenic risks of the studied NPAHs associated with PM1.0 samples were also determined for two sampling sites: Canoas and Sapucaia do Sul. The results showed that NPAH standard spectra can effectively identify NPAHs in PM1.0 samples. The transmittance and emissivity sample spectra showed broader bands and lower relative intensity than the standard NPAH spectra. The carcinogenic risk and the total mutagenic risk were calculated using the toxic equivalent factors and mutagenic potency factors, respectively. Canoas showed the highest total carcinogenic risk, while Sapucaia do Sul had the highest mutagenic risk. The seasonal analysis suggested that in the study area the ambient air is more toxic during the cold periods. These findings might of significant importance for the decision and policy making authorities.

KEYWORDS:

Emissivity; FTIR; NPAH; PM(1.0); Toxicity; Transmittance

PMID:
26473715
DOI:
10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.142
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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