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Expert Rev Proteomics. 2015;12(6):623-36. doi: 10.1586/14789450.2015.1094380. Epub 2015 Oct 15.

Physiological conditions can be reflected in human urine proteome and metabolome.

Wu J1, Gao Y1,2.

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a 1 Department of Pathophysiology, National Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.
b 2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Beijing Normal University, Gene Engineering and Biotechnology Beijing Key Laboratory, Beijing, 100875, China.


Biomarkers are the measurable changes associated with physiological or pathophysiological processes. Urine, unlike blood, lacks mechanisms for maintaining homeostasis: it is therefore an ideal source of biomarkers that can reflect systemic changes. Urinary proteome and metabolome have been studied for their diagnostic capabilities, ability to monitor disease and prognostic utility. In this review, the effects of common physiological conditions such as gender, age, diet, daily rhythms, exercise, hormone status, lifestyle and extreme environments on human urine are discussed. These effects should be considered when biomarker studies of diseases are conducted. More importantly, if physiological changes can be reflected in urine, we have reason to expect that urine will become widely used to detect small and early changes in pathological and/or pharmacological conditions.


biomarker; metabolomics; physiological conditions; proteomics; urine

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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