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Nat Rev Immunol. 2015 Nov;15(11):692-704. doi: 10.1038/nri3908. Epub 2015 Oct 16.

How leukocytes cross the vascular endothelium.

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Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine, Röntgenstrasse 20, D-48149 Münster, Germany.


Immune responses depend on the ability of leukocytes to move from the circulation into tissue. This is enabled by mechanisms that guide leukocytes to the right exit sites and allow them to cross the barrier of the blood vessel wall. This process is regulated by a concerted action between endothelial cells and leukocytes, whereby endothelial cells activate leukocytes and direct them to extravasation sites, and leukocytes in turn instruct endothelial cells to open a path for transmigration. This Review focuses on recently described mechanisms that control and open exit routes for leukocytes through the endothelial barrier.

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