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Food Chem. 2016 Mar 1;194:986-93. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.113. Epub 2015 Sep 2.

Intermolecular binding of blueberry pectin-rich fractions and anthocyanin.

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Department of Food Science, University Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA(1); University of Georgia, Department of Food Science and Technology, Athens, GA, USA(2).
University of Georgia, Department of Foods and Nutrition, Athens, GA, USA.
University of Georgia, Department of Food Science and Technology, Athens, GA, USA(2); Department of Home Economics Education, College of Education, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seongbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701, Republic of Korea; School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA. Electronic address:


Pectin was extracted from blueberry powder into three fractions of water soluble (WSF), chelator soluble (CSF) and sodium carbonate soluble (NSF). The fractions were incubated with cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a mixture of five anthocyanidins (cyanidin, pelargonidin, malvidin, petunidin and delphinidin) or blueberry juice at pH 2.0-4.5. Free anthocyanins and bound anthocyanin-pectin mixtures were separated by ultrafiltration. WSF bound the least amount of anthocyanin at all pH values. CSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 2.0-3.6, while NSF had stronger anthocyanin binding ability at pH 3.6-4.5. The pectin and anthocyanin binding was lowest at pH 4.5 and higher at pH 2.0-3.6. Nearly doubling C3G pigment content increased bound anthocyanin percentage by 16-23% at pH 3.6, which favored anthocyanin aromatic stacking, compared to 3-9% increase at pH 2.0. Ionic interaction between anthocyanin flavylium cations and free pectic carboxyl groups, and anthocyanin stacking may be two major mechanisms for pectin and anthocyanin binding.


Anthocyanin; Blueberry; Cyanidin-3-glucoside; Intermolecular binding; Pectin

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