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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2016 Jan;25(1):217-21. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0953. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

A Pooled Analysis of Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormone Use, and Risk of Multiple Myeloma among Women in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium.

Author information

1
Unit of Infections and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, IDIBELL, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain. Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain. lcostas@iconcologia.net.
2
Department of Epidemiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
3
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
4
Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.
5
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
6
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, NIH, DHHS, Rockville, Maryland.
7
Division of Cancer Etiology, Department of Population Sciences, City of Hope and Beckman Research Institute, Duarte, California.
8
Division of Hematology and Hematologic Malignancies, University of Utah School of Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah.
9
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
10
IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
11
Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Occupational Health Section, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
12
Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency, Molecular Epidemiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
13
Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
14
Biological Hematology Unit, CRB Ferdinand Cabanne, Universitary Hospital of Dijon and EA4184, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
15
Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute and MF MU, Brno, Czech Republic.
16
Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
17
Public Health University College, Dublin, Ireland.
18
Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham, Alabama.
19
Unit of Infections and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, IDIBELL, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain. Department of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Female sex hormones are known to have immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use could influence the risk of multiple myeloma in women. However, the role of hormonal factors in multiple myeloma etiology remains unclear because previous investigations were underpowered to detect modest associations.

METHODS:

We conducted a pooled analysis of seven case-control studies included in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium, with individual data on reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use from 1,072 female cases and 3,541 female controls. Study-specific odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression and pooled analyses were conducted using random effects meta-analyses.

RESULTS:

Multiple myeloma was not associated with reproductive factors, including ever parous [OR = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-1.25], or with hormonal contraception use (OR = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.80-1.36). Postmenopausal hormone therapy users had nonsignificantly reduced risks of multiple myeloma compared with never users, but this association differed across centers (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.37-1.15, I(2) = 76.0%, Pheterogeneity = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data do not support a role for reproductive factors or exogenous hormones in myelomagenesis.

IMPACT:

Incidence rates of multiple myeloma are higher in men than in women, and sex hormones could influence this pattern. Associations with reproductive factors and exogenous hormone use were inconclusive despite our large sample size, suggesting that female sex hormones may not play a significant role in multiple myeloma etiology.

PMID:
26464426
PMCID:
PMC4745255
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0953
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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