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Cytokine. 2016 Jan;77:227-37. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.10.001. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

CSF cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in neuroinflammatory CNS disorders: A systematic review.

Author information

1
Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: kavitha.kothur@health.nsw.gov.au.
2
Department of Clinical Immunology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia. Electronic address: Louise.Wienholt@sswahs.nsw.gov.au.
3
Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: fabienne.brilot@sydney.edu.au.
4
Neuroimmunology Group, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, University of Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: russell.dale@health.nsw.gov.au.

Abstract

Despite improved understanding of the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory disorders of the brain and development of new diagnostic markers, our biomarker repertoire to demonstrate and monitor inflammation remains limited. Using PubMed database, we reviewed 83 studies on CSF cytokines and chemokines and describe the pattern of elevation and possible role of cytokines/chemokines as biomarkers in viral and autoimmune inflammatory neurological disorders of the CNS. Despite inconsistencies and overlap of cytokines and chemokines in different neuroinflammation syndromes, there are some trends regarding the pattern of cytokines/chemokine elevation. Namely B cell markers, such as CXCL13 and BAFF are predominantly investigated and found to be elevated in autoantibody-associated disorders, whereas interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is elevated mainly in viral encephalitis. Th2 and Th17 cytokines are frequently elevated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), whereas Th1 and Th17 cytokines are more commonly elevated in multiple sclerosis (MS). Cytokine/chemokine profiling might provide new insights into disease pathogenesis, and improve our ability to monitor inflammation and response to treatment.

KEYWORDS:

ADEM; Autoantibodies; Autoimmune; Biomarkers; Chemokines; Cytokines; Encephalitis; Neuroinflammation

PMID:
26463515
DOI:
10.1016/j.cyto.2015.10.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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