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J Comp Pathol. 2015 Nov;153(4):287-314. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.08.009. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

Author information

1
Syngenta Limited, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK. Electronic address: chamanza@aol.com.
2
Syngenta Limited, Jealott's Hill International Research Centre, Bracknell, Berkshire, UK.

Abstract

There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man.

KEYWORDS:

experimental animals; human risk assessment; nasal cavity; toxicological pathology

PMID:
26460093
DOI:
10.1016/j.jcpa.2015.08.009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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