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Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Nov;40:116-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.09.022. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

High hepatitis C virus prevalence among drug users in Iran: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence (2001-2012).

Author information

1
Phillip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA; Global Health Sciences, University of California, 3333 California Street, Suite 265, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA. Electronic address: MMalekinejad@ucsf.edu.
2
Global Health Sciences, University of California, 3333 California Street, Suite 265, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Phillip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies, University of California, San Francisco, California, USA.
4
Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
5
Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
6
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Drug users, particularly drug injectors, are at elevated risk of blood-borne diseases. This study systematically reviewed the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection and its co-infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) in drug users in Iran.

METHODS:

Searches were conducted in international, regional, and Iranian databases. Documents were screened, data extracted, and pooled point prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated.

RESULTS:

Overall, 13,821 subjects (87.4% male) with an average age of 32.4 years (95% CI 31-33 years) from 24 original studies were included in the analysis. The pooled HCV prevalence (95% CI) among drug users with and without an injection history was 45% (37-54%) and 8% (4-13%), respectively. The pooled HCV prevalences (95% CI) among individuals with vs. without a history of imprisonment and needle sharing were 58% (39-77%) vs. 44% (20-68%) and 56% (41-71%) vs. 49% (26-71%), respectively. The prevalence of HCV/HIV co-infection among injectors was 11% (95% CI 5-16%).

CONCLUSIONS:

HCV prevalence is high in drug users in Iran, especially among those with a history of injection drug use, needle sharing, and imprisonment. Drug user-focused HCV prevention and treatment programs are urgently needed.

KEYWORDS:

Drug use; HIV; Harm reduction; Hepatitis B; Hepatitis C; Iran

PMID:
26460088
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2015.09.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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