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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Oct 12;60(1):87-91. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01480-15. Print 2016 Jan.

In Vitro and In Vivo Antimicrobial Activities of Minocycline in Combination with Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, or Tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum.

Author information

1
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
2
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Brazil.
3
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Brazil.
4
Setor de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
5
Clinica Médica e Cirúrgica de Pequenos Animais-Patologia Clínica Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil.
6
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Santa Maria, Brazil janio.santurio@gmail.com.

Abstract

The present study investigated the in vitro and the in vivo interactions among azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, and tigecycline against Pythium insidiosum. In vitro antimicrobial activities were determined by the broth microdilution method in accordance with CLSI document M38-A2, and the antibiotic interactions were assayed using the checkerboard MIC format. In vivo efficacy was determined using a rabbit infection model. The geometric mean MICs of azithromycin, clarithromycin, minocycline, and tigecycline against P. insidiosum were, respectively, 1.91, 1.38, 0.91, and 0.79 μg/ml. By checkerboard testing, all combinations resulted in in vitro synergistic interactions (>60%). Antagonism was not observed. The in vivo studies showed that azithromycin (20 mg/kg/day twice daily) alone or in combination with minocycline (10 mg/kg/day twice daily) significantly decreased the fungal burden. This study demonstrates that azithromycin possesses potent curative efficacy against subcutaneous pythiosis in the rabbit model.

PMID:
26459895
PMCID:
PMC4704155
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.01480-15
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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