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Phys Sportsmed. 2015 Nov;43(4):403-11. doi: 10.1080/00913847.2015.1092856. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

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a Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University , Philadelphia, PA, USA.
b The Rothman Institute , Philadelphia PA 19107, USA.
c Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sidney Kimmel Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University , Philadelphia, PA, USA.
d Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Orlin & Cohen Orthopedic Associates , Long Island, NY, USA.


With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete.


Female athlete; anterior cruciate ligament injuries; female athlete triad; sexual dimorphisms; stress fractures

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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