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Anal Chem. 2015 Nov 3;87(21):10734-7. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b03164. Epub 2015 Oct 21.

Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor.

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Department of Chemical Engineering McMaster University , 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4L7.
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering McMaster University , 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON Canada , L8S 4K1.


Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

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