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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2016 Apr 1;99(Pt A):28-51. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2015.09.012. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

PEGylation as a strategy for improving nanoparticle-based drug and gene delivery.

Author information

1
The Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States.
2
The Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.
3
The Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Departments of Biomedical Engineering, Environmental and Health Sciences, Oncology, Neurosurgery, and Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205 United States.
4
The Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231, United States; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States. Electronic address: lensign@jhmi.edu.

Abstract

Coating the surface of nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG), or "PEGylation", is a commonly used approach for improving the efficiency of drug and gene delivery to target cells and tissues. Building from the success of PEGylating proteins to improve systemic circulation time and decrease immunogenicity, the impact of PEG coatings on the fate of systemically administered nanoparticle formulations has, and continues to be, widely studied. PEG coatings on nanoparticles shield the surface from aggregation, opsonization, and phagocytosis, prolonging systemic circulation time. Here, we briefly describe the history of the development of PEGylated nanoparticle formulations for systemic administration, including how factors such as PEG molecular weight, PEG surface density, nanoparticle core properties, and repeated administration impact circulation time. A less frequently discussed topic, we then describe how PEG coatings on nanoparticles have also been utilized for overcoming various biological barriers to efficient drug and gene delivery associated with other modes of administration, ranging from gastrointestinal to ocular. Finally, we describe both methods for PEGylating nanoparticles and methods for characterizing PEG surface density, a key factor in the effectiveness of the PEG surface coating for improving drug and gene delivery.

KEYWORDS:

Enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect; Liposomes; Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS); Mucosal delivery; Stealth coatings

PMID:
26456916
PMCID:
PMC4798869
DOI:
10.1016/j.addr.2015.09.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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