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J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2016 Jun;18(6):581-4. doi: 10.1111/jch.12716. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

The Impact of Using Different Methods to Assess Completeness of 24-Hour Urine Collection on Estimating Dietary Sodium.

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Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
African Population and Health Research Center, Nairobi, Kenya.


The standard for population-based surveillance of dietary sodium intake is 24-hour urine testing; however, this may be affected by incomplete urine collection. The impact of different indirect methods of assessing completeness of collection on estimated sodium ingestion has not been established. The authors enlisted 507 participants from an existing community study in 2009 to collect 24-hour urine samples. Several methods of assessing completeness of urine collection were tested. Mean sodium intake varied between 3648 mg/24 h and 7210 mg/24 h depending on the method used. Excluding urine samples collected for longer or shorter than 24 hours increased the estimated urine sodium excretion, even when corrections for the variation in timed collections were applied. Until an accurate method of indirectly assessing completeness of urine collection is identified, the gold standard of administering para-aminobenzoic acid is recommended. Efforts to ensure participants collect complete urine samples are also warranted.

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