Send to

Choose Destination
J Pediatr. 2015 Dec;167(6):1409-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.09.026. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Location of Usual Source of Care among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 1997-2013.

Author information

Infant, Child, and Women's Health Statistics Branch, Office of Analysis and Epidemiology, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD.
Department of Pediatrics, Sinai Hospital of Baltimore, Baltimore, MD.
Department of Research, American Academy of Pediatrics, Elk Grove Village, IL.



To examine national trends in the percentage of children whose usual source of care is at a clinic, health center, or hospital outpatient department (hereafter "clinics") and whether trends differ by sociodemographic subpopulations.


Analysis of serial, cross-sectional, nationally representative in-person household surveys, the 1997-2013 National Health Interview Surveys, was conducted to identify children with a usual source of care (n = 190,571), and the percentage receiving that care in a clinic. We used joinpoint regression to identify changes in linear trends, and logistic regression with predictive margins to obtain per-year changes in percentages, both unadjusted and adjusted for sociodemographic factors. Interaction terms in logistic regressions were used to assess whether trends varied by sociodemographic subgroups.


Of all children with a usual source of care, the percentage receiving that care in a clinic declined 0.44 percentage points per year (P < .001) from 22.97% in 1997 to 19.31% in 2002. Thereafter, it increased approximately 0.57 percentage points per year (P < .001), reaching 26.1% in 2013. Trends for some sociodemographic subgroups varied from these overall trends. No changes were observed between 2003 and 2013 for non-Hispanic black and Medicaid/State Children's Health Insurance Program insured children.


This study shows that, although the percentage of children with a usual source of care in a clinic declined between 1997 and 2002, it has steadily increased since that time.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center