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Can J Cardiol. 2016 Mar;32(3):319-26. doi: 10.1016/j.cjca.2015.06.020. Epub 2015 Jun 25.

Assessment of Dietary Sodium and Potassium in Canadians Using 24-Hour Urinary Collection.

Author information

1
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: andrew.mente@phri.ca.
2
Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Québec, Canada.
3
Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
4
Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University and Division of Cardiology, Providence Health Care, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
5
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
6
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
7
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.
8
Social Determinants and Science Integration Directorate, Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Canada.
9
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; HRB Clinical Research Facility, NUI Galway, Ireland.
10
Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Although salt intake derived from data on urinary sodium excretion in free-living populations has been used in public policy, a population study on urinary sodium excretion has not been done in Canada. We assessed dietary sodium and potassium intake using a 24-hour urine collection in a large survey of urban and rural communities from 4 Canadian cities and determined the association of these electrolytes with blood pressure (BP).

METHODS:

One thousand seven hundred consecutive individuals, aged 37-72 years, attending their annual follow-up visits of the ongoing Prospective and Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study in Vancouver, Hamilton, Ottawa, and Quebec City, Canada, collected a 24-hour urine sample using standardized procedures.

RESULTS:

Mean sodium excretion was 3325 mg/d and mean potassium excretion was 2935 mg/d. Sodium excretion ranged from 3093 mg/d in Vancouver to 3642 mg/d in Quebec City, after adjusting for covariates. Potassium excretion ranged from 2844 mg/d in Ottawa to 3082 mg/d in Quebec City. Both electrolytes were higher in men than in women and in rural populations than in urban settings (P < 0.001 for all). Sodium excretion was between 3000 and 6000 mg/d in 48.3% of the participants, < 3000 mg/d in 46.7%, and > 6000 mg/d in only 5%. No significant association between sodium or potassium excretion and BP was found.

CONCLUSIONS:

Sodium consumption in these Canadians is within a range comparable to other Western countries, and intake in most individuals is < 6000 mg/d, with only 5% at higher levels. Within this range, sodium or potassium levels were not associated with BP.

PMID:
26454468
DOI:
10.1016/j.cjca.2015.06.020
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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