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Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2016 May;53:94-100. doi: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.10.004. Epub 2015 Oct 8.

Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis.

Author information

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA; Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA. Electronic address: xz2369@columbia.edu.

Abstract

Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) have long been attributed to influence morphogenesis in embryonic development. Signaling by FGF morphogen encodes positional identity of tissues by creating a concentration gradient over the developing embryo. Various mechanisms that influence the development of such gradient have been elucidated in the recent past. These mechanisms of FGF gradient formation present either as an extracellular control over FGF ligand diffusion or as a subcellular control of FGF propagation and signaling. In this review, we describe our current understanding of FGF as a morphogen, the extracellular control of FGF gradient formation by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and mechanisms of intracellular regulation of FGF signaling that influence gradient formation.

KEYWORDS:

Fibroblast growth factors; Heparan sulfate proteoglycans; Morphogen

PMID:
26454099
PMCID:
PMC4906438
DOI:
10.1016/j.semcdb.2015.10.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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