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Chromosoma. 2016 Jun;125(3):471-96. doi: 10.1007/s00412-015-0539-4. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

The quest for mammalian Polycomb response elements: are we there yet?

Author information

1
Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, 1030, Vienna, Austria.
2
IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Philippstr. 13, Haus 18, 10115, Berlin, Germany.
3
Institute of Molecular Biotechnology (IMBA), Dr. Bohr-Gasse 3, 1030, Vienna, Austria. leonie.ringrose@iri-lifesciences.de.
4
IRI Life Sciences, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Philippstr. 13, Haus 18, 10115, Berlin, Germany. leonie.ringrose@iri-lifesciences.de.

Abstract

A long-standing mystery in the field of Polycomb and Trithorax regulation is how these proteins, which are highly conserved between flies and mammals, can regulate several hundred equally highly conserved target genes, but recognise these targets via cis-regulatory elements that appear to show no conservation in their DNA sequence. These elements, termed Polycomb/Trithorax response elements (PRE/TREs or PREs), are relatively well characterised in flies, but their mammalian counterparts have proved to be extremely difficult to identify. Recent progress in this endeavour has generated a wealth of data and raised several intriguing questions. Here, we ask why and to what extent mammalian PREs are so different to those of the fly. We review recent advances, evaluate current models and identify open questions in the quest for mammalian PREs.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila; Epigenetics; Mammal; Polycomb; Polycomb response element; Trithorax

PMID:
26453572
PMCID:
PMC4901126
DOI:
10.1007/s00412-015-0539-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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