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Bone. 2015 Nov;80:14-18. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.035.

Bone development.

Author information

1
Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, USA.
2
Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Harvard University, USA. Electronic address: bjorn_olsen@hms.harvard.edu.

Abstract

The development of the vertebrate skeleton reflects its evolutionary history. Cartilage formation came before biomineralization and a head skeleton evolved before the formation of axial and appendicular skeletal structures. This review describes the processes that result in endochondral and intramembranous ossification, the important roles of growth and transcription factors, and the consequences of mutations in some of the genes involved. Following a summary of the origin of cartilage, muscle, and tendon cell lineages in the axial skeleton, we discuss the role of muscle forces in the formation of skeletal architecture and assembly of musculoskeletal functional units. Finally, ontogenetic patterning of bones in response to mechanical loading is reviewed.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

KEYWORDS:

Bone development; Endochondral ossification; Intramembranous ossification; Skeletal patterning; Somite differentiation; Tendon–bone attachment; Transcription factors

PMID:
26453494
PMCID:
PMC4602167
DOI:
10.1016/j.bone.2015.04.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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