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Gastrointest Endosc. 2016 Jun;83(6):1164-72. doi: 10.1016/j.gie.2015.09.040. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

EUS-guided treatment of gastric fundal varices with combined injection of coils and cyanoacrylate glue: a large U.S. experience over 6 years (with video).

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Paul May and Frank Stein Interventional Endoscopy Center, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.



Conventional endoscopic treatment of gastric fundal varices (GFV) with cyanoacrylate (CYA) glue may be complicated by embolization and rebleeding. We evaluated the long-term outcomes of EUS-guided injection of coils and CYA glue for therapy of GFV.


A retrospective chart review of patients treated for GFV was performed. The main outcomes measured were hemostasis, obliteration on surveillance EUS, post-treatment bleeding rate, and adverse events.


From March 2009 to 2015, 152 patients with GFV were treated. Seven (5%) had active hemorrhage, 105 (69%) had recent bleeding, and 40 (26%) were treated for primary prophylaxis. Treatment was technically successful in 151 patients (>99%). Mean number of coils was 1.4 (range, 1-4 coils), and mean volume of CYA was 2 mL (range, 0.5-6). Follow-up was available for 125 patients with treated GFV (mean, 436 days; range, 30-2043). Among 100 patients with follow-up EUS examinations, complete obliteration (on Doppler study) of GFV was confirmed in 93 (93%). Post-treatment bleeding from obliterated GFV occurred in 3 of 93 patients (3%). Twenty-five patients who had clinical and/or EGD follow-up had 3 post-treatment bleeding episodes after a median follow-up of 324 days (range, 41-486). Among the 40 patients treated for primary prophylaxis, 28 underwent follow-up EUS and 27 (96%) had confirmed obliteration. Mild postprocedure abdominal pain occurred in 4 of 125 patients (3%), and clinical signs of pulmonary embolization were seen in 1 patient (1%). Another 4 of 125 patients (3%) presented with minor delayed upper GI bleeding from coil/glue extrusion.


EUS-guided combined coil and CYA glue injection of high-risk GFV appears to be highly effective for hemostasis in active bleeding and primary and secondary bleeding prophylaxis. Once obliteration was achieved, post-treatment bleeding from GFV occurred in only 3% during long-term follow-up. Combination therapy appears safe and may reduce the risk of CYA embolization.

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