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Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 9;5:14843. doi: 10.1038/srep14843.

Diurnal rhythms in the human urine metabolome during sleep and total sleep deprivation.

Author information

1
Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
2
St. Olavs Hospital, Trondheim University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway.
3
Chronobiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK.
4
Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

Abstract

Understanding how metabolite levels change over the 24 hour day is of crucial importance for clinical and epidemiological studies. Additionally, the association between sleep deprivation and metabolic disorders such as diabetes and obesity requires investigation into the links between sleep and metabolism. Here, we characterise time-of-day variation and the effects of sleep deprivation on urinary metabolite profiles. Healthy male participants (n = 15) completed an in-laboratory study comprising one 24 h sleep/wake cycle prior to 24 h of continual wakefulness under highly controlled environmental conditions. Urine samples were collected over set 2-8 h intervals and analysed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Significant changes were observed with respect to both time of day and sleep deprivation. Of 32 identified metabolites, 7 (22%) exhibited cosine rhythmicity over at least one 24 h period; 5 exhibiting a cosine rhythm on both days. Eight metabolites significantly increased during sleep deprivation compared with sleep (taurine, formate, citrate, 3-indoxyl sulfate, carnitine, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, TMAO and acetate) and 8 significantly decreased (dimethylamine, 4-DTA, creatinine, ascorbate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, allantoin, 4-DEA, 4-hydroxyphenylacetate). These data indicate that sampling time, the presence or absence of sleep and the response to sleep deprivation are highly relevant when identifying biomarkers in urinary metabolic profiling studies.

PMID:
26450397
PMCID:
PMC4598809
DOI:
10.1038/srep14843
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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