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Nat Commun. 2015 Oct 9;6:8569. doi: 10.1038/ncomms9569.

Large-area synthesis of high-quality and uniform monolayer WS2 on reusable Au foils.

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Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 72 Wenhua Road, Shenyang 110016, China.
Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.


Large-area monolayer WS2 is a desirable material for applications in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics. However, the chemical vapour deposition (CVD) with rigid and inert substrates for large-area sample growth suffers from a non-uniform number of layers, small domain size and many defects, and is not compatible with the fabrication process of flexible devices. Here we report the self-limited catalytic surface growth of uniform monolayer WS2 single crystals of millimetre size and large-area films by ambient-pressure CVD on Au. The weak interaction between the WS2 and Au enables the intact transfer of the monolayers to arbitrary substrates using the electrochemical bubbling method without sacrificing Au. The WS2 shows high crystal quality and optical and electrical properties comparable or superior to mechanically exfoliated samples. We also demonstrate the roll-to-roll/bubbling production of large-area flexible films of uniform monolayer, double-layer WS2 and WS2/graphene heterostructures, and batch fabrication of large-area flexible monolayer WS2 film transistor arrays.

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