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Biomark Cancer. 2015 Sep 20;7(Suppl 2):15-8. doi: 10.4137/BIC.S29325. eCollection 2015.

Human Cancer Immunotherapy with PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade.

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Institute of Metabolism and Endocrinology, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Key Laboratory of Diabetes Immunology, Ministry of Education, Central South University, National Clinical Research Center for Metabolic Diseases, Changsha, Hunan, China.


The ligation of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) to its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2 counteracts T-cell activation, which is critical in immune tolerance. The persistent high expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 are also observed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and various tumor cells, maintaining the highly suppressive microenvironment in tumor sites and promoting tumor malignancies. The blockade of PD-1 axis with PD-L2 fusion protein or monoclonal antibodies against either PD-1 or PD-L1 has been clinically evaluated in various tumor types. This short review summarizes the progress of PD-1 axis blockade in clinical trials to evaluate its effectiveness in the antitumor immunotherapy.


PD-1; PD-L1; PD-L2; antitumor immunotherapy; blockade; clinical trials

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