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Int J Tryptophan Res. 2015 Sep 20;8:49-52. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S25915. eCollection 2015.

Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment in the Rat - Effects on Brain Interleukin-8 and Kynurenic Acid.

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Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.


Schizophrenia is associated with activation of the brain immune system as reflected by increased brain levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) and proinflammatory cytokines. Although antipsychotic drugs have been used for decades in the treatment of the disease, potential effects of these drugs on brain immune signaling are not fully known. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of chronic treatment with antipsychotic drugs on brain levels of cytokines and KYNA. Rats were treated daily by intraperitoneally administered haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg, n = 6), olanzapine (2 mg/kg, n = 6), and clozapine (20 mg/kg, n = 6) or saline (n = 6) for 30 days. Clozapine, but not haloperidol or olanzapine-treated rats displayed significantly lower cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of interleukin-8 compared to controls. Whole brain levels of KYNA were not changed in any group. Our data suggest that the superior therapeutic effect of clozapine may be a result of its presently shown immunosuppressive action. Further, our data do not support the possibility that elevated brain KYNA found in patients with schizophrenia is a result of antipsychotic treatment.


antipsychotic drugs; chronic treatment; clozapine; interleukin-8; kynurenic acid

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