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PLoS One. 2015 Oct 8;10(10):e0139575. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139575. eCollection 2015.

The Interaction between Enterobacteriaceae and Calcium Oxalate Deposits.

Author information

1
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
2
Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America.
3
Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Urology, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
4
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Clinical and Translational Research, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America; Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Nephrology, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.
5
Lebonheur Children's Hospital, Division of Nephrology, Memphis, Tennessee, United States of America.
6
Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America; Nationwide Children's Hospital, Division of Nephrology, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The role of calcium oxalate crystals and deposits in UTI pathogenesis has not been established. The objectives of this study were to identify bacteria present in pediatric urolithiasis and, using in vitro and in vivo models, to determine the relevance of calcium oxalate deposits during experimental pyelonephritis.

METHODS:

Pediatric kidney stones and urine were collected and both cultured and sequenced for bacteria. Bacterial adhesion to calcium oxalate was compared. Murine kidney calcium oxalate deposits were induced by intraperitoneal glyoxalate injection and kidneys were transurethrally inoculated with uropathogenic Escherichia coli to induce pyelonephritis.

RESULTS:

E. coli of the family Enterobacteriaceae was identified in patients by calcium oxalate stone culture. Additionally Enterobacteriaceae DNA was sequenced from multiple calcium oxalate kidney stones. E. coli selectively aggregated on and around calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Mice inoculated with glyoxalate and uropathogenic E. coli had higher bacterial burdens, increased kidney calcium oxalate deposits and an increased kidney innate immune response compared to mice with only calcium oxalate deposits or only pyelonephritis.

CONCLUSIONS:

In a murine model, the presence of calcium oxalate deposits increases pyelonephritis risk, likely due to preferential aggregation of bacteria on and around calcium oxalate crystals. When both calcium oxalate deposits and uropathogenic bacteria were present, calcium oxalate deposit number increased along with renal gene transcription of inner stone core matrix proteins increased. Therefore renal calcium oxalate deposits may be a modifiable risk factor for infections of the kidney and urinary tract. Furthermore, bacteria may be present in calcium oxalate deposits and potentially contribute to calcium oxalate renal disease.

PMID:
26448465
PMCID:
PMC4598009
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0139575
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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