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Chest. 2016 Apr;149(4):999-1010. doi: 10.1378/chest.15-1543. Epub 2016 Jan 12.

Impact of Adenotonsillectomy on Insulin Resistance and Lipoprotein Profile in Nonobese and Obese Children.

Author information

1
Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
2
Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL; Section of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.
3
Section of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Pritzker School of Medicine, Biological Sciences Division, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address: lgozal@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

OSA associates with insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia consistently in adults, but inconsistently in children. We set out to quantify the impact of OSA treatment upon obesity and metabolic outcomes and thus assess causality.

METHODS:

Sixty-nine children with OSA; mean age, 5.9 years (range, 3-12.6); 55% boys; and 68% nonobese (NOB) underwent baseline overnight polysomnography, anthropometric and metabolic measurements, adenotonsillectomy (T&A), and follow-up testing a mean 7.9 months (range, 2-20) later.

RESULTS:

Fifty-three children (77% of study cohort; 91% of obese children) had residual OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > 1 event/h) post-T&A. Fasting plasma insulin (FPI, 14.4 ± 9.4 → 12.6 ± 9.7 μIU/mL, P = .008), homeostasis model assessment-IR (3.05 ± 2.13 → 2.62 ± 2.22, P = .005), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (51.0 ± 12.9 → 56.5 ± 14.4 mg/dL, P = .007) improved despite increased BMI z score (1.43 ± 0.78 → 1.52 ± 0.62, P = .001); changes did not differ significantly between sexes or NOB and obese participants; however, post-T&A BMI z score rather than apnea-hypopnea index was the main predictor of levels of follow-up FPI, HDL, and other metabolic parameters. Higher baseline FPI and BMI-z predicted likelihood of residual OSA; conversely, on regression analysis, follow-up IR, HDL, and triglycerides were predicted by BMI z score, not residual OSA.

CONCLUSIONS:

T&A improved IR and HDL, and residual OSA is predicted by baseline FPI and BMI z score, indicating a causal relationship; however, following T&A, residual metabolic dysfunction related to underlying adiposity rather than remaining sleep-disordered breathing. Finally, T&A cured OSA in < 25% of all children and only 10% of obese children; post-T&A polysomnography is indicated to assess which children still require treatment.

KEYWORDS:

OSA; adenotonsillectomy; children; insulin resistance; lipids

PMID:
26447773
PMCID:
PMC4944784
DOI:
10.1378/chest.15-1543
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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