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Brain Behav. 2015 Sep;5(9):e00362. doi: 10.1002/brb3.362. Epub 2015 Aug 3.

An update on immunopathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester, Massachusetts, 01655.
2
Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Medical School Worcester, Massachusetts, 01655.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Multiple sclerosis is an acquired demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It is the second most common cause of disability in adults in United States after head trauma.

DISCUSSION:

The etiology of MS is probably multifactorial, related to genetic, environmental, and several other factors. The pathogenesis is not fully understood but is believed to involve T-cell-mediated inflammation directed against myelin and other related proteins with a possible role for B cells. The McDonald criteria have been proposed and revised over the years to guide the diagnosis of MS and are based on clinical presentation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and spinal cord to establish dissemination in time and space. The treatment of MS includes disease modification with immunomodulator drugs and symptom management to address the specific symptoms such as fatigue, spasticity, and pain.

CONCLUSION:

An update on etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immunomodulatory treatment of MS is presented.

KEYWORDS:

Demyelination; diagnosis; etiology; immunomodulator; multiple sclerosis; pathogenesis; treatment

PMID:
26445701
PMCID:
PMC4589809
DOI:
10.1002/brb3.362
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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