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PLoS One. 2015 Oct 7;10(10):e0140144. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140144. eCollection 2015.

Complete Plastid Genome of the Brown Alga Costaria costata (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae).

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Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding of Marine Organism, College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.
CAS Key Laboratory of Genome Sciences and Information, Beijing Key Laboratory of Genome and Precision Medicine Technologies, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.


Costaria costata is a commercially and industrially important brown alga. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to determine the complete plastid genome of C. costata. The genome consists of a 129,947 bp circular DNA molecule with an A+T content of 69.13% encoding a standard set of six ribosomal RNA genes, 27 transfer RNA genes, and 137 protein-coding genes with two conserved open reading frames (ORFs). The overall genome structure of C. costata is nearly the same as those of Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida. The plastid genomes of these three algal species retain a strong conservation of the GTG start codon while infrequently using TGA as a stop codon. In this regard, they differ substantially from the plastid genomes of Ectocarpus siliculosus and Fucus vesiculosus. Analysis of the nucleic acid substitution rates of the Laminariales plastid genes revealed that the petF gene has the highest substitution rate and the petN gene contains no substitution over its complete length. The variation in plastid genes between C. costata and S. japonica is lower than that between C. costata and U. pinnatifida as well as that between U. pinnatifida and S. japonica. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that C. costata and U. pinnatifida have a closer genetic relationship. We also identified two gene length mutations caused by the insertion or deletion of repeated sequences, which suggest a mechanism of gene length mutation that may be one of the key explanations for the genetic variation in plastid genomes.

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