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Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Nov 1;80(9):720-726. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.034. Epub 2015 Sep 3.

Prenatal Caffeine Exposure and Child IQ at Age 5.5 Years: The EDEN Mother-Child Cohort.

Author information

1
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Université de Bordeaux, Charles Perrens Hospital, Bordeaux; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Bordeaux School of Public Health (Institut de Santé Publique, d'Epidémiologie et de Développement), Centre INSERM U897, Bordeaux. Electronic address: cedric.galera@u-bordeaux.fr.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, INSERM UMR1153, Sorbonne Paris Center, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Villejuif, Paris Descartes University; Paris, France; Paris XI University; Paris, France.
3
Department of Social Epidemiology, INSERM UMRS 1136, Pierre Louis Institute of Epidemiology and Public Health Paris, France; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University of Paris 06, Paris, France.
4
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Université de Bordeaux, Charles Perrens Hospital, Bordeaux.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, INSERM UMR1153, Sorbonne Paris Center, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, Villejuif, Paris Descartes University; Paris, France.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence from animal studies suggests maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy has detrimental effects on subsequent brain development in offspring. However, human data in this area are limited. The aim of this study was to assess whether caffeine intake by women during pregnancy is associated with impaired cognitive development in offspring at age 5.5 years.

METHODS:

Multivariate modeling was conducted using data of 1083 mother-child pairs from a population-based birth cohort in France followed from pregnancy to age 5.5 years of the children. Measures included an estimate of maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy, children's IQ at age 5.5, and individual and family characteristics.

RESULTS:

Prenatal caffeine exposure was common in the sample (91%) with 12% displaying an intake ≥200 mg/day (high). Multivariable modeling showed a significant negative relationship between caffeine intake and children's IQ at 5.5 years (-.94 [95% confidence interval = -1.70, -.17] full IQ unit per 100 mg daily caffeine intake). In particular, children of mothers consuming ≥200 mg/day were more likely to have borderline or lower IQ compared with children of mothers consuming <100 mg/day (13.5% vs. 7.3%; odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval = 1.13, 4.69).

CONCLUSIONS:

We found an association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and impaired cognitive development in offspring, a result in line with animal data. More epidemiologic and biologically grounded research is needed to determine whether this association is causal. This finding suggests that conservative guidelines regarding the maximum caffeine intake recommended in pregnancy (i.e., 200 mg/day) should be maintained.

KEYWORDS:

Caffeine; Cognition; Cohort studies; IQ, Pregnancy; Prenatal exposure; Preschool age

Comment in

PMID:
26444074
DOI:
10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.08.034
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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