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J Food Sci. 2015 Nov;80(11):E2486-94. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.13091. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Effects of Combined High Hydrostatic Pressure and Dense Phase Carbon Dioxide on the Activity, Structure and Size of Polyphenoloxidase.

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School of Chemical Sciences, The Univ. of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering, The Univ. of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.


High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) may activate undesirable enzymes such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO). Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) addition to HHP could increase enzyme inactivation. We investigated the inactivation of combined HHP and dense phase carbon dioxide process on activity, secondary conformation and size of pure PPO from mushroom. Solutions (2.35μM, in phosphate buffer pH 6.8) were treated with HHP alone (HHP), or 3.6% w/w of CO2 was injected into the package (HHP+CO2). Treatment conditions were 600 MPa, 20 °C, for 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 min. HHP+CO2 treatment significantly decreased residual enzyme activity (REA) to 30% to 12% after 1 to 9 min, respectively, whereas only HHP had no significant effect. Both HHP and HHP+CO2 treatments caused changes in secondary conformations, however HHP+CO2 changes were more extensive. Alpha-helix fractions were reduced by 32% and 41%, while β sheet, turn and unordered increased by 63% and 213%, 100% and 71%, and 118% and 82% for HHP and HHP+CO2, respectively after 9 min. The protein size in HHP+CO2 samples was 5- to 6-fold larger than that of Control and HHP treatment, and this increase was inversely correlated with REA. The best inactivation kinetics of HHP+CO2 model was the 2-fractional model with 2 simultaneous 1st-order steps, contributing 70% and 30% to original enzyme activity, with k(labile) = 12.15 min(-1) and k(stable) = 0.07 min(-1), respectively. No recovery in activity, secondary conformation and size in all samples were observed after 1-mo storage. Addition of CO2 in HHP treatment can improve enzyme inactivation, and therefore product shelf-life and quality.


High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) achieves the safety of foods as a nonthermal method, but it may activate undesirable enzymes resulting in short shelf life due to, for example flavor and color changes. Our study determined that addition of CO2 to HHP has significant effects on enzyme inactivation, secondary conformational and molecular size changes of mushroom PPO. No recovery in activity, secondary conformation and size in all samples were observed after 1 mo storage at 4 °C. This combined process increases product shelf life, in addition to safety and nutrient preservation.


High pressure; dense phase carbon dioxide; enzyme; kinetics; structure

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