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J Infect Dis. 1989 Feb;159(2):189-94.

Compartmentalization of intraalveolar and systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor and the pulmonary inflammatory response.

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Department of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, Louisiana State University Medical Center, New Orleans 70112.


Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), a monokine produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages, is an activator of phagocytic functions and may modulate host responses during infection. To determine the effects of LPS on TNF activity and the pulmonary inflammatory response in vivo, we challenged rats systemically or intratracheally with LPS. Intravenous LPS significantly increased serum TNF content from nondetectable levels in control specimens to peak levels at 90 min, which declined to baseline by 3 h. In response to intratracheal LPS, levels of TNF both in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and associated with alveolar macrophages increased significantly from near nondetectable levels in control animals. Increases in TNF levels were confined to the LPS-challenged compartment. Intravenous LPS resulted in a decrease in the number of peripheral blood neutrophils and in sequestration of these cells within the pulmonary vasculature. In contrast, intratracheal LPS elicited a marked intraalveolar inflammatory response.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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