Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurochem. 2015 Dec;135(5):1019-37. doi: 10.1111/jnc.13378. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Proteolytic degradation of neuropeptide Y (NPY) from head to toe: Identification of novel NPY-cleaving peptidases and potential drug interactions in CNS and Periphery.

Author information

1
Deutschsprachige Selbsthilfegruppe für Alkaptonurie (DSAKU) e.V., Stuttgart, Germany.
2
Probiodrug AG, Halle, Germany.
3
Department of Experimental Therapy, Preclinical Experimental Center, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany.
4
Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
5
Translational Neuroendocrine Research Unit, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
6
Department of Medical Genetics, Centre for Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia and Children's and Women's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
7
Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Muenster, Germany.
8
St. Rochus-Hospital Telgte, Telgte, Germany.
9
Julius Bernstein Institute for Physiology, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.
10
Fraunhofer-Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology, Department of Drug Design and Target Validation, Halle, Germany.

Abstract

The bioactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is either N-terminally modulated with respect to receptor selectivity by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DP4)-like enzymes or proteolytic degraded by neprilysin or meprins, thereby abrogating signal transduction. However, neither the subcellular nor the compartmental differentiation of these regulatory mechanisms is fully understood. Using mass spectrometry, selective inhibitors and histochemistry, studies across various cell types, body fluids, and tissues revealed that most frequently DP4-like enzymes, aminopeptidases P, secreted meprin-A (Mep-A), and cathepsin D (CTSD) rapidly hydrolyze NPY, depending on the cell type and tissue under study. Novel degradation of NPY by cathepsins B, D, L, G, S, and tissue kallikrein could also be identified. The expression of DP4, CTSD, and Mep-A at the median eminence indicates that the bioactivity of NPY is regulated by peptidases at the interphase between the periphery and the CNS. Detailed ex vivo studies on human sera and CSF samples recognized CTSD as the major NPY-cleaving enzyme in the CSF, whereas an additional C-terminal truncation by angiotensin-converting enzyme could be detected in serum. The latter finding hints to potential drug interaction between antidiabetic DP4 inhibitors and anti-hypertensive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, while it ablates suspected hypertensive side effects of only antidiabetic DP4-inhibitors application. The bioactivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) is either N-terminally modulated with respect to receptor selectivity by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DP4)-like enzymes or proteolytic degraded by neprilysin or meprins, thereby abrogating signal transduction. However, neither the subcellular nor the compartmental differentiation of these regulatory mechanisms is fully understood. Using mass spectrometry, selective inhibitors and histochemistry, studies across various cell types, body fluids, and tissues revealed that most frequently DP4-like enzymes, aminopeptidases P, secreted meprin-A (Mep-A), and cathepsin D (CTSD) rapidly hydrolyze NPY, depending on the cell type and tissue under study. Novel degradation of NPY by cathepsins B, D, L, G, S, and tissue kallikrein could also be identified. The expression of DP4, CTSD, and Mep-A at the median eminence indicates that the bioactivity of NPY is regulated by peptidases at the interphase between the periphery and the CNS. Detailed ex vivo studies on human sera and CSF samples recognized CTSD as the major NPY-cleaving enzyme in the CSF, whereas an additional C-terminal truncation by angiotensin-converting enzyme could be detected in serum. The latter finding hints to potential drug interaction between antidiabetic DP4 inhibitors and anti-hypertensive angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, while it ablates suspected hypertensive side effects of only antidiabetic DP4-inhibitors application.

KEYWORDS:

Proteolysis; cathepsin D; dipeptidyl peptidase 4; median eminence; meprin-A

PMID:
26442809
DOI:
10.1111/jnc.13378
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center