Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Brain Behav. 2015 Sep;5(9):e00350. doi: 10.1002/brb3.350. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Neural basis of motivational approach and withdrawal behaviors in neurodegenerative disease.

Author information

1
Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, California ; Department of Psychiatry, Jikei University School of Medicine Tokyo, Japan.
2
Memory and Aging Center, Department of Neurology, University of California San Francisco, California.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

The Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) have been theorized as neural systems that regulate approach/withdrawal behaviors. Behavioral activation/inhibition balance may change in neurodegenerative disease based on underlying alterations in systems supporting motivation and approach/withdrawal behaviors, which may in turn be reflected in neuropsychiatric symptoms.

METHOD:

A total of 187 participants (31 patients diagnosed with behavioral variant of FTD [bvFTD], 13 semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia [svPPA], 14 right temporal variant FTD [rtFTD], 54 Alzheimer's disease [AD], and 75 older healthy controls [NCs]) were included in this study. Changes in behavioral inhibition/activation were measured using the BIS/BAS scale. We analyzed the correlation between regional atrophy pattern and BIS/BAS score, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM).

RESULTS:

ADs had significantly higher BIS scores than bvFTDs and NCs. bvFTDs activation-reward response (BAS-RR) was significantly lower than ADs and NCs, though their activation-drive (BAS-D) was significantly higher than in ADs. Both AD and rtFTD patients had abnormally low activation fun-seeking (BAS-FS) scores. BIS score correlated positively with right anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus volume, as well as volume in the right precentral gyrus and left insula/operculum.

CONCLUSIONS:

AD, bvFTD, and rtFTD patients show divergent patterns of change in approach/withdrawal reactivity. High BIS scores correlated with preservation of right-predominant structures involved in task control and self-protective avoidance of potentially negative reinforcers. Damage to these regions in bvFTD may create a punishment insensitivity that underlies patients' lack of self-consciousness in social contexts.

KEYWORDS:

Alzheimer’s disease; behavior inhibition; dementia; frontotemporal dementia; neurodegeneration; social concern; voxel-based morphometry

PMID:
26442751
PMCID:
PMC4589805
DOI:
10.1002/brb3.350
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center